Hibernate and its database management system
Hibernate and its database management system
In this article, we are going to talk about Hibernate In java and its database Management System in an easy manner for beginners. Hibernate is one of the most popular Frameworks in java. Let’s get into the Article.




What is Hibernate?

  • A framework for mapping object-oriented domain models to relational databases for web applications is provided by the open source object-relational mapping (ORM) program known as Hibernate.

  • The abstraction that enables object containerization is the foundation of object-relational mapping. Without having to take into account how those objects relate to their data sources, abstraction enables the address, access, and manipulation of objects.

  • The Hibernate ORM framework facilitates searching and retrieval as well as mapping Java classes to database tables and Java data types to SQL data types.

Gains from Hibernate:

  • Any modifications are contained within the data source itself, preventing the applications that use ORM from having to adapt or even be aware of changes made to the data sources or their application programming interfaces (APIs). 

  • Similar to this, programmers can maintain a consistent understanding of objects across time even when their sources, sinks, and applications may all change.

  • The open source GNU Lesser General Public License governs Hibernate, which is free to download (LGPL).

How does Hibernate function?

  • Any Java application can use Hibernate, an open source object-relational persistence and query service. Hibernate frees the developer from the majority of routine data persistence-related programming work by mapping Java classes to database tables and from Java data types to SQL data types.

  • To handle all the effort in persisting those objects based on the right O/R mechanisms and patterns, Hibernate sits between regular Java objects and database servers.

How can I use Hibernate?

    By maintaining the object-table mapping by itself and returning results to applications in the form of Java objects, Hibernate minimizes the number of lines of code. By relieving the programmer from handling permanent data manually, it cuts down on both development time and maintenance costs.


JDBC vs. Hibernate and JPA

The Java SE edition includes an API called Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) that standardizes and makes it easier to link Java programs to external, relational database management systems (RDBMS).

  • Applications created in Java execute logic at their core. Iterative logic using looks, conditional logic using if statements and object-oriented analysis using classes and interfaces are all possible in the Java language. However, Java programs do not permanently save data.

  • NoSQL databases like MongoDB and Cassandra, relational databases like IBM's DB2 or Microsoft's SQL Server, or the well-known open source database MySQL commonly handle data persistence.

  • There are a number of frameworks that make the process of transporting data between a relational database and a Java program easier, which helps alleviate the object-relational impedance mismatch. The well-known ORM frameworks Hibernate, TopLink, and Data Nucleus are all examples.

Background of Hibernate

  • Gavin King and associates at Cirrus Technologies founded Hibernate in 2001 as an alternative to entity beans in the EJB2-style. The initial intention was to provide persistence features that were superior to those provided by EJB2.

  • The Hibernate development team started releasing Hibernate2 in early 2003. Version 3.0 of Hibernate was released in 2005. Hibernate ORM 5.4.0 Final was released in December 2018.

How do Hibernate and JDBC vary from one another as database APIs?

When choosing how to communicate with backend database systems, software architects must solve a significant technical challenge. Hibernate vs. JDBC is a common point of contention since the two database systems offer distinctly different methods for handling persistent data.


What separates JDBC and Hibernate:

  • The main distinction between JDBC and Hibernate may be summed up as follows: Hibernate conducts an object-relational mapping framework, whereas JDBC is merely a database connectivity API. The lengthy response necessitates a history lesson on Java database access.

  • Since the 1997 release of JDK 1.1, the JDBC API has been bundled as a component of the Java Standard Edition (Java SE). It offers a collection of simple classes and methods that enable programmers to create code that can connect to a variety of databases.

  • Differentiating between the two database APIs is crucial. Although their names are sometimes used interchangeably and JDBC and Hibernate have certain similarities, they are not the same.

  • With the help of classes from the JDBC API, including the ResultSet and the PreparedStatement, it is possible to consume tabular data and turn it into elements that work with Java's object-oriented constructions. However, the conversion of JDBC results into object-oriented components needs a lot of boilerplate code and is time-consuming, difficult, and prone to mistakes.

  • The object-relational impedance mismatch refers to the incompatibility between the way data is stored in a relational database and data in an object-oriented system. JDBC enables data exchange between a Java program and a relational database, but it is neither simple nor elegant. The Hibernate vs. JDBC argument is just the tip of the iceberg for developers who need to solve these issues.

When interacting with databases, Hibernate vs. JDBC:

  • Hibernate, in a contrast to JDBC, enables programmers to create database-driven Java applications using conventional, object-oriented semantics.

  • Developers can then add hardly perceptible JPA annotations to their Java code using the Hibernate API. Annotations like these explain how a specific Java class and its variables correspond to a specific database table and its columns. The laborious and error-prone coding needed to translate between the object-oriented Java code and the backend database is then handled by the Hibernate framework.

The connection between JDBC and Hibernate

  • JDBC is still required for applications built with Hibernate and JPA. The JDBC APIs are still used for all database interactions when using Hibernate. Actually developed on top of the JDBC API are Hibernate and JPA.

  • Database programming is significantly simplified by the abstraction layer functions of Hibernate and JPA, which shield the developer from the low-level JDBC calls.

Performance of JDBC versus Hibernate

  • Many software architects are unconcerned about the potential performance impact of a framework between a Java application and the backend database.

  • Most of the time, a JPA framework does the identical data marshaling chores that would require coding even if a JPA framework wasn't being used. In this case, the only distinction between Hibernate and JDBC is who does the coding: the Hibernate framework or the local developer. In either case, you must correct the object-relation impedance mismatch.


Hibernate, DataNucleus, and TopLink are a few examples of JPA frameworks that excel at what they do. Any additional clock cycles they could use over a JDBC-only application are negligible in comparison to the resources a relational database would use to process a query or the network latency involved in sending a ResultSet back and forth.

The distinction between JPA and Hibernate

  • It's also important to note that the names Hibernate and JPA might be used interchangeably throughout much of this material. The Red Hat-sponsored project Hibernate is an object-relational mapping (ORM) utility in and of itself. 

  • Along with the previously mentioned TopLink and Data Nucleus, Open JPA, JDO, and Eclipse Link are more ORM solutions.

  • Many manufacturers offered Java developers ORM frameworks in the late 2000s. They all carried out the same fundamental tasks, but they did so while employing various classes, packages, methods, annotations, and XML mappings.

  •  JPA, or the Java Persistence API, was created when the Java community thought it would be better for these many projects to collaborate under defined APIs.