Production of Aniline
Production of Aniline
Aniline Market

There are two processes in the industrial aniline manufacturing process. To produce nitrobenzene, benzene is first nitrated with a strong combination of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C. The nitrobenzene is subsequently hydrogenated in the presence of metal catalysts (usually at 200-300 °C).

Nikolay Zinin was the first to use inorganic sulphide as a reductant to convert nitrobenzene to aniline in 1842. (Zinin reaction). The reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline was also done as part of Antoine Béchamp's reductions in 1854, with iron as the reductant (Bechamp reduction). Aniline may also be made from ammonia and phenol, which are byproducts of the cumene process. In commerce, three brands of aniline are distinguished: aniline oil for blue, which is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, which is a mixture of equimolecular amounts of aniline and ortho- and para-toluidines; and aniline oil for safranine, which contains aniline and ortho-toluidines and is obtained from the fuchsine fusion distillate (échappés).

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