Opportunities & Challenges Of Artificial Intelligence in India
Opportunities & Challenges Of Artificial Intelligence in India
In 1956, American computer scientist John McCarthy organized the Dartmouth conference, in which the term ‘Artificial Intelligence’ was first adopted.

Opportunities & Challenges Of Artificial Intelligence in India

Table of Content
7. Threat from AI
9. Measures to avoid misusing of Artificial Intelligence

Read here some important Topic-wise notes for MPPSC exam preparation


There are many Definition of AI some of them are here

  1. The ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings.
  2. A machine completing the tasks which involve a certain degree of intelligence which was previously deemed only to be done by humans.
  3. Is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning, reasoning, and self-correction.
  4. The capability of a machine to imitate the intelligent human behavior

All the definitions above are correct, but it really depends on “how close or how well a computer can imitate or go beyond, when compared to human being”

Artificial intelligence generally implies machines exhibiting traits or human intelligence. The important traits of human intelligence include observing, taking inputs from the observations, reasoning and rationalizing, decision making, manipulations, learning from behavior and patterns, communicating, analyzing complex situations and performing tasks to achieve goals and targets.
At present, the “subfields of AI” like machine learning, autonomous systems, natural language processing, robotics and artificial creativity are popular areas of research.

Development of artificial intelligence

In 1956, American computer scientist John McCarthy organized the Dartmouth conference, in which the term ‘Artificial Intelligence’ was first adopted. Since then, the world has explored ideas of the potential
Machines to look at social problems using knowledge data and competition.
There used to be several dedicated projects on the same and the government was funding research.
Questions of ethics arise in every aspect of science, and especially when one starts looking at empowering machines to behave and act like humans. Around the late 70s and 80s there was a time when governments would shut down Funding research in AI.
AI experienced a resurgence in the 21st century following concurrent advances in computer power and large amounts of data and theoretical understanding.
AI technology has now become an essential part of the technology industry which is helping to solve many challenging problems in computer-science. From Apple Siri to self-driving cars, AI is advancing rapidly.

Example: There are millions of algorithms and codes to understand human commands and perform human-like tasks. Facebook’s suggested friends list for its users, a pop-up page, is telling about a
The upcoming sale of favorite brands of shoes and clothes that pop up on the screen while browsing the Internet is a work of artificial intelligence.
A complex technology: AI involves complex things such as feeding a particular data into a machine and making it respond to different situations. It’s basically about creating a self-learning pattern where Machines can answer questions that have never been answered like humans will ever.

Artificial intelligence is a different technology

AI is different from hardware-driven robotic automation. Instead of automating manual tasks, AI consistently performs high volume computerized tasks reliably.
AI is often misunderstood for machine learning. AI is a broad concept with a bunch of technologies that include machine learning and other technologies such as natural language processing, inference algorithms, neutron networks, etc.


There are two types of artificial intelligence: strong artificial intelligence (SAI) and weak artificial intelligence (WAI). What has been actually called strong AI is actually ‘full AI’.
A full AI means a machine becoming capable of performing all intelligence tasks that a human being can perform. In this, a machine would not exhibit selective fragments of human intelligence but would rather behave like a human being in terms a consciousness.
Full AI is also known as “artificial general intelligence”. Human beings reason, use strategy, solve problems make judgments, use commonsense, plan, learn, communicate, and integrate all these to achieve their goals. To test the artificial general intelligence of machines, some test have been suggested. These are Turing Test (human and machine talk), Coffee Test (a machine can make coffee at your home), College Admission Test (a machine can enroll admission, join class and clear exam to get degree) and important job). There are different thrust areas of AI research those are mentioned in Table below.

Machine Learning: This is the field in which computers are given the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed.
Autonomous Systems: A system that learns on its own to perform various tasks.
Language Processing The field of interaction between machines and human languages.
Robotics in entirely is not just AI but there is a field of AI-powered robots. Artificial Creativity using computer. E.g. Aiva is an AI-powered system that can compose soundtracks. Google’s project Magenta is all about AI application in arts.


AI research began in the United States with particular interest in developing machines that could translate from Russian to English and vice-versa. This was in context of Cold War with the then Soviet Union.
The revival of AI has taken place now with strides having been made in the applied aspect of Artificial Intelligence. The focus is now on developing AI for solving particular problems. Scientists are optimistic that this approach to AI is better than the top down approach, in which the research initially was focused on developing an artificial brain that would behave like a human brain.
The applications that are attracting maximum attention are machine learning, robotics, autonomous systems and natural language processing. Autonomous systems are systems with the ability to acquire or create content, interpret and develop knowledge from that content to make a decision on the basis of that interpretation. They are now applied in the development of driverless cars and drones and fraud detection. Prominent examples of driverless cars includes Waymo of Google S, model X and model 3. In February 2017, Dubai announced that its sky would soon see driverless drones for ferrying people. The passenger just needs to press a button and it takes off vertically.
Robotics is another area experiencing significant changes that have the potential to knock off many human relations. It has the potential to revolutionize areas of medicines, manufacturing, defence, personal assistants, hospitality industry, personal uses, etc., Many AI projects brought worldwide.
India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed a robot called Daksh, which can destroy life-threatening objects. Apart from applications like these, AI-powered robotics has been developed for entirely different uses.


“Sophia” is a social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong-based company, Hanson Robotics. With the ability to display more than 62 facial expressions, Sophia has participated in many high-profile interviews. In October 2017, Sophia was also given citizenship of Saudi Arabia- the first robot to receive citizenship of any country.

The robot is modeled after actress ‘Audrey Hepburn’ and uses artificial intelligence visual data processing and facial recognition. Cameras within Sophia’s eyes combined with computer algorithms allow her to see. She can follow faces, maintain eye contact, and recognize individuals. She is able to process speech and can have conversations using Alphabet’s Google Chrome voice recognition technology and other tools.
Sophia also imitates human gestures and facial expressions and is able to answer certain questions and can make simple conversations on predefined topics (e.g. on the weather).
Hanson designed Sophia to be a suitable companion for the elderly at nursing homes, or to help crowds at large events or parks. Sophia has seven robot humanoid “siblings” who were also created by Hanson Robotics — Alice, Albert Einstein, Philip K. Dick Android, Zeno, and Joey Chaotic. Sophia would ultimately be a good fit to serve in healthcare, customer service, therapy and education.


India ranks third or fourth (depending on China’s position in AI) in the size of AI clusters. India has already taken a lead in this regard, thanks to several AI startups. In this industry, the private sector has been vibrant.
However, the 2018 Indian budget, presented on 1 February 2018 signalled the government’s intention to push for the development of machine learning and artificial intelligence.
The NITI Aayog has even been asked to prepare a roadmap for a nationwide programme in artificial intelligence, including research and development of its applications.
The government has also promised to offer incentives to start-ups and venture funds that undertake application-oriented research on artificial intelligence across key sectors, including banking, insurance, education, health, retail and transportation. The Department of Service and Technology is also looking into setting up centres of excellence that will push investments in “research, training and skilling in robotics, artificial intelligence, digital manufacturing, big data analysis, quantum communication”.
Apart from these vibrant private sector clusters, India’s Centre for Artificial intelligence and Robotics (CAIR), a laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), has developed a number of products that are powered by AI. Many of them are under development. Most of the products are in the areas of robotics, autonomous systems and intelligent systems that would do analyses without any human effort to give quick results.

According to the Global AI Report, a report by a Canadian company, India ranks ninth in terms of the number of AI experts working in this field. US, China and UK topped list.
The top ranked countries in this report have many educational institutions with programs on AI. So they have a huge number of skilled people to do research in the field.

In contrast, India lacks opportunities for formal education in data science, but is slowly trying to encourage the adoption of AI in educational institutions.

CBSE has AI as an elective subject for class IX.

New education policy boosts artificial intelligence

IIT Hyderabad has launched a full-fledged Bachelor of Technology (B Tech) program in AI, becoming the first Indian educational institution to do so. it is also most likely
Third educational institution in the world to have full blown BTech program on AI.
IIIT Hyderabad is another educational institution that introduced popular executive programs on AI and Machine Learning and Block Chain and Distributed Ledger technologies.
India’s defense forces are now venturing into products and technologies that will aid in defense measures using these tools, AI and technologies.
In India, corporates started collaborating with academics on AI or is. IBM’s Blue Project is an example.
There are many start-ups in the country which are doing great work in Image Analytics, Data Analytics, Predictive Intelligence etc.
It is estimated that AI will add $957 billion to India’s GDP by the year 2035, leading to a 1.3% increase in India’s annual growth.



  • There is utilization of machines for taking on complex and stressed work that would else be undertaken by humans.
  • Machines finish the task sooner than a human if assigned with the same task.
  • They can be used in discovering unknown landscapes and outer space which is useful in our daily life.
  • As the task is being done by the machines, it causes less stress and injuries to humans.
  • Providing assistance to people who are visually and hearing impaired.
  • Through artificial intelligence, understanding complex software can be made easier.
  • Less number of errors and defects.
  • Ministers resources and time. Time and resource are not wasted but smartly used to achieve the goal.


  • Lacks human sensation. Human qualities are ignored.
  • The ability to replace a human job. This gives rise to humans feelings insecure of losing their jobs.
  • A machine can replace human capabilities and therefore, it can promote inferiority feelings among workers and staff.
  • There can be malfunctioning in artificial intelligence and there is possibility of the reverse happening as they are programmed to do so.
  • The younger generations may be corrupted.
  • No information filtration.
  • There can be misuse of such technology and thereby causing a mass-scale destruction.

Benefits of Artificial Intelligence in several fields

In Policing: India still has a traditional policing system. AI based products open a new window of opportunity to do predictive policing in India. with the help of AI can predict crime patterns; Analyze multiple CCTV footage available across the country to identify the suspects.
The government is digitizing all the records, especially by keeping the crime records at one place, which is called
CCTNS where all data including image, biometrics, or criminal
A convict or suspect’s history is available.
In agriculture:
It has many uses, for example, it can help to understand how much water a crop needs. To solve complex issues like efficient use of available resources. AI-based traffic management system with sensors, CCTV cameras, automatic number plate recognition, cameras, motion detection cameras, indicated pedestrian crossings.

Analyzing data:
AI technology helps to analyze data and thus can improve the efficiency of systems such as power management in cars, mobile devices, weather forecasting and video.

Health sector:
A joint venture between Microsoft and Indian start-up ‘Forus Health’ has developed a portable device called “3Nethra” that can screen for common eye problems as well as complex conditions like diabetic retinopathy.

A chatbot for patients’ queries. The information is medically verified. First of its kind.


The question is pertinent since the revival of intelligent machines has not just created euphoria over its potential benefits but has also given rise to fears that it would replace humans. Even as robots are being made for performing simple human tasks that do not require complex problem-solving, there is a worry that planet Earth would turn into a place where humans would be salves to machines that would be more intelligent than them. Artificial intelligence is definitely trying to create machines and stystems that will be more intelligent than their predecessors. So, this march of AI may lead to a future where machines are extremely intelligent but the fears may turn out to be exaggerated.

Threat from AI

AI brings impressive applications to all of us with remarkable benefits; But there are remarkably unanswered questions with social, political or ethical aspects. We have to be aware of them.

AI-powered algorithms that manipulate appearances and Voices of people in real-looking footage.

Social manipulation: Cambridge Analytica and others linked to the firm that used data from 50 million Facebook users to try to influence the outcome of the 2016 US presidential election.

Integrity and Fair Systems: AI systems learn by analyzing large amounts of data and they continue to optimize through continuous modeling of interaction data and user-feedback. So, how can it be ensured that the initial training of AI algorithms is fair?

Cyber-crime: AI can be used to mount automated hacking attacks, commit financial fraud, cut through a country’s security infrastructure; may also promote terrorism and bigotry.

Access to data, knowledge, technology: In an interconnected world, very few companies are collecting vast amounts of data — access to this aggregated data will allow for accurate replay one’s day-to-day life in terms of activities, interactions and interests explicitly stated or implied; one (or some) can know anything about our mobility history and patterns, or about one’s earthly life pattern.

Invasion of privacy and social grading: Governments can use data to govern through AI, people’s social media habits, Police can present policies to people with the help of Face ID, as is done in countries like China.

Technological Unemployment: It is unemployment which is ‘created by machines’ i.e. jobs replaced by intelligent machines or systems.
The environmental impact caused by data centers does not stop at electricity consumption.


PM-STIAC identifies 9 National Science and Technology Missions: Mission 1 of those missions is the National Mission on Artificial Intelligence.

In the budget of 2018–19, the government has given new and
emerging technologies.

Thereafter NITI Aayog took a three pronged approach, which included investigative proof of concept AI projects in various sectors, formulated a national strategy for building a vibrant AI ecosystem in India and collaborated with various stakeholders.

Experts and stakeholders:
NITI Aayog circulated the note to set up a cloud computing platform called AIRAWAT (Artificial Intelligence Research, Analytics and).

Knowledge Assimilation Platform:
As part of the initiative, NITI Aayog published the draft National Strategy for AI in the year 2018, planning its scope for research, adoption and commercialization.

It clearly envisioned an AI use case in sectors such as health, agriculture, education, smart cities and infrastructure, smart mobility and transportation.

The Ministry of Commerce and Industry has also constituted a task force to explore the use of AI and Big Data technologies.

Measures to avoid misusing of Artificial Intelligence:

Without moral guard rails, AI would expand social and economic schism, amplifying any innate bias at an irreversible scale and rate and leading to discriminatory outcomes. It is neither enough nor justified to expect AI tech companies to solve all these challenges through self-regulation.
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  1. The UN Secretary General’s Roadmap on Digital Cooperation is a good starting point: it addresses the need for multi-stakeholder efforts on global cooperation, so AI is used in a way that is “trustworthy, human rights-based, safe and sustainable.” be, and promotes peace”.
  2. And UNESCO has developed a global, comprehensive standard-setting draft recommendation on the ethics of artificial intelligence for member states to consider and adopt.
  3. The government should promote core and advanced research in AI. Creating regional innovation clusters to build automation and robotics in partnership with universities and start-ups, offering incentives for manufacturers.
  4. Machine intelligence is an important element of national security strategy; So governments should evaluate models of defense research in collaboration with the private sector and universities dealing with AI.

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Notes for preparation of MPPSC Prelims Unit 9 and MPPSC Mains Paper 3, Unit 7, Clones, Robots and Artificial Intelligence.


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