Phthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride, both made from crude oil, are increasingly being replaced by bio-based succinic acid, which is produced from the fermentation of carbohydrates. As a result, the replacement is now cost-competitive. Because they function similarly in formulations that contain phthalic anhydride, manufacturers are switching to bio-based succinic acid as a result of the rising demand for bio-based chemicals. For instance, businesses like Myriant have created bio-based succinic acid market, which is structurally related to maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. This has improved performance, minimised performance changes, and increased the market share of bio-based chemicals in the industry under study.
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